Monday, 15 September 2014

Citizenship Day 17 September

Every 17 September, Australia celebrates Citizenship Day. The commemoration was instituted in 2001, with this date because it is the anniversary of the renaming of the Nationality and Citizenship Act 1948 to the Australian Citizenship Act 1948.

In January 1955 my grandfather, Hans Boltz, on behalf of the Good Neighbour Council, attended the sixth Australian Citizenship Convention. The Good Neighbour Movement was established by the Australian government in 1949 to help migrants settle into the Australian way of life. Volunteers welcomed migrants into the local community, introduced them to schools, health centres, banks and shops, and gave advice on learning English.

CANBERRA DELEGATES TO CONVENTION. (1955, January 28). The Canberra Times (ACT : 1926 - 1995), p. 2. Retrieved September 15, 2014, from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article91202771. Hans Boltz is in the front row at the right.
The sixth Australian Citizenship Convention was held in Canberra at the Albert Hall. Harold Hold, then Minister for Immigration, addressed the convention. Holt forecast that Australia would have a population of twenty million by 1980. In fact the population of Australia in 1980 was only 14.5 million. It reached 20 million in 2005, fifty years after the conference. Among recommendations from the conference was a call for for legislative change to make applying for naturalisation simpler.

The Good Neighbour Council had welcomed Hans Boltz as a citizen following his naturalisation on 29 September 1954. This was just four months before the conference

As part of the application process in 1954, my grandparents needed to advertise their intention of applying for citizenship.
Classified Advertising. (1954, August 5). The Canberra Times (ACT : 1926 - 1995), p. 3. Retrieved September 15, 2014, from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article2902928


Naturalisation For 22 Migrants To-day. (1954, September 29). The Canberra Times (ACT : 1926 - 1995), p. 6. Retrieved September 15, 2014, from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article2921372
Migrants Welcomed At Naturalisation. (1954, September 30). The Canberra Times (ACT : 1926 - 1995), p. 4. Retrieved September 15, 2014, from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article2904236
My grandmother was naturalised later in the same year.
NATURALISATION THIS AFTERNOON. (1954, December 14). The Canberra Times (ACT : 1926 - 1995), p. 2. Retrieved September 15, 2014, from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article2906178

Sixteen Migrants Naturalised In A.C.T. Ceremony. (1954, December 15). The Canberra Times (ACT : 1926 - 1995), p. 2. Retrieved September 15, 2014, from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article2904377

The last article mentions 78 people naturalised in Canberra in 1954. In Australia 4,440 naturalisation certificates were granted in 1954. Of these, 225 were to those who were previously of German nationality.

Australian Bureau of Statistics Year book Australia. ABS, Canberra, 1956. Page 620.

More than 4.5 million people have become citizens since Australian citizenship was introduced in 1949. ("Facts and Statistics." Australian Citizenship. Australian Customs and Border Protection Service, 15 Sept. 2014. Web. 15 Sept. 2014. <http://www.citizenship.gov.au/learn/facts-and-stats/>.)

Related post: Australia Day: Climbing our family's gum tree






























Thursday, 4 September 2014

Sparrows' eggs

A clutch of eggs of a house sparrow, Passer domesticus.  "Passerdomesticuseggs" by Notafly. Licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 via Wikimedia Commons - http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Passerdomesticuseggs.JPG

My great great grandfather James Francis Cudmore (1837 - 1912) detested house sparrows. He was one of many people in the late 1880s who believed sparrows to be nothing but a nuisance. To help eradicate sparrows James Cudmore provided prize money for the largest collection of sparrows' eggs to be exhibited at the 1889 Brighton Floricultural and Horticultural Show. Cudmore lived at Paringa Hall at Brighton, South Australia.

THE SPARROW PEST. (1889, June 22). South Australian Register (Adelaide, SA : 1839 - 1900), p. 5. Retrieved September 4, 2014, from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article47065831

In all over 3,500 eggs were collected by three competitors for the show which was held in October.

JUVENILE FLORAL AND INDUSTRIAL EXHIBITIONS. (1889, October 26). South Australian Register (Adelaide, SA : 1839 - 1900), p. 6. Retrieved September 4, 2014, from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article47287895

House sparrows were introduced into Australia in the 1860s to eat caterpillars, which were thought to be ruining the livelihood of many farmers.


HEADS OF EUROPEAN AND AMERICAN INTELLIGENCE. (1863, February 14). South Australian Weekly Chronicle (Adelaide, SA : 1858 - 1867), p. 1 Supplement: Supplement to the South Australian Weekly Chronicle. Retrieved September 4, 2014, from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article90262153

The release of sparrows in Ararat, Victoria, was reported in the newspapers.

PARLIAMENTARY. (1867, October 23). The Wallaroo Times and Mining Journal (Port Wallaroo, SA : 1865 - 1881), p. 3. Retrieved September 4, 2014, from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article110359540

In less than six months there were reports that sparrows had become a pest.

VICTORIA. (1868, March 25). The Wallaroo Times and Mining Journal (Port Wallaroo, SA : 1865 - 1881), p. 5. Retrieved September 4, 2014, from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article110360694

In 1868 when sparrows were introduced in Mount Gambier, South Australia, it was acknowledged that they were a problem in orchards, but they were still thought to be beneficial for other farmers.


Local Intelligence. (1868, April 11). Border Watch (Mount Gambier, SA : 1861 - 1954), p. 2. Retrieved September 4, 2014, from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article77164789

Eight years later, in 1874, sparrows were being declared a nuisance without reservation and were denounced as one of the "greatest blights in both Horticultural and Agricultural efforts". The Victorian Acclimatisation society was blamed for their introduction. It was suggested that the formation of sparrow clubs, with the purpose of destroying sparrows, might cope with the pest.

THE SPARROW NUISANCE. (1874, September 26). Border Watch (Mount Gambier, SA : 1861 - 1954), p. 4. Retrieved September 4, 2014, from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article77552028

At its third Annual General Meeting in 1881, the South Australian Acclimatization Society was keen to distance itself from the introduction of sparrows and rabbits. It was asserted that sparrows were imported into South Australia before the Society was established and rabbits had been released by private individuals.

ACCLIMATIZATION SOCIETY. (1881, November 7). The South Australian Advertiser (Adelaide, SA : 1858 - 1889), p. 1 Supplement: Unknown. Retrieved September 4, 2014, from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article34272260

In December 1889, the year James Cudmore offered the prize for the largest collection of sparrows' eggs, a Sparrow Destruction Bill was passed by the South Australian Parliament. A similar Bill had been considered in 1887 but was defeated.

The Sparrows. (1889, December 20). The Narracoorte Herald (SA : 1875 - 1954), p. 2. Retrieved September 4, 2014, from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article146689363

In 1952, more than sixty years later, a Mr Frank Edwards remembered collecting sparrow eggs for the bounty at Marino just south of Brighton and delivering them to the police station.

Out Among The People By vox . (1952, October 31). The Advertiser (Adelaide, SA : 1931 - 1954), p. 4. Retrieved September 4, 2014, from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article47429557



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